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Urban Development and Rural development implies both the economic betterment of people as well as greater social transformation. Increased participation of people in the rural development programmes, decentralization of planning, better enforcement of land reforms and greater access to credit are envisaged for providing the rural people with better prospects.
We believes in the spirit of partnership and has joined hands with community organization, civic bodies, corporate, educational and development institutions, as well as government to strengthen its cause and ameliorate the situation of underprivileged children and youths in India.
Being the nodal Department for most of the development and welfare activities in the rural areas, the Department of Rural Development plays a vital role in the overall development strategy of the State. The vision and mission of the Department is sustainable and inclusive growth of rural Tripura through a multipronged strategy for eradication of poverty by increasing livelihoods opportunities, providing social safety net and developing infrastructure for growth.
India has seen tremendous urban progress. It is estimated that by 2030, more than 400 million people will be living in cities in India. Cities occupy 3 percent of land but the contribution to India’s gross domestic product is a huge 60 per cent. Growth of cities has been beneficial for overall poverty reduction in India, with urban growth accounting for about 80 percent of the total fall in poverty.
The creation, integration, and adoption of smart city capabilities require a unique set of frameworks to realize the focus areas of opportunity and innovation central to smart city projects. The frameworks can be divided into 5 main dimensions which include numerous related categories of smart city development:
A smart city relies heavily on the deployment of technology. Different combinations of technological infrastructure interact to form the array of smart city technologies with varying levels of interaction between human and technological systems.
• Digital: A service oriented infrastructure is required to connect individuals and devices in a smart city. These include innovation services and communication infrastructure. Yovanof, G. S. & Hazapis, G. N. define a digital city as "a connected community that combines broadband communications infrastructure; a flexible, service-oriented computing infrastructure based on open industry standards; and, innovative services to meet the needs of governments and their employees, citizens and businesses."
• Intelligent: Cognitive technologies, such as artificial intelligence and machine learning, can be trained on the data generated by connected city devices to identify patterns. The efficacy and impact of particular policy decisions can be quantified by cognitive systems studying the continuous interactions of humans with their urban surroundings.
• Ubiquitous: A ubiquitous city provides access to public services through any connected device. U-city is an extension of the digital city concept because of the facility in terms of accessibility to every infrastructure.
• Wired: The physical components of IT systems are crucial to early-stage smart city development. Wired infrastructure is required to support the IoT and wireless technologies central to more interconnected living. A wired city environment provides general access to continually updated digital and physical infrastructure. The latest in telecommunications, robotics, IoT, and various connected technologies can then be deployed to support human capital and productivity.
• Hybrid: A hybrid city is the combination of a physical conurbation and a virtual city related to the physical space. This relationship can be one of virtual design or the presence of a critical mass of virtual community participants in a physical urban space. Hybrid spaces can serve to actualize future-state projects for smart city services and integration.
• Information city: The multiplicity of interactive devices in a smart city generates a large quantity of data. How that information is interpreted and stored is critical to Smart city growth and security.
The Natural Resources and Environment Management Program offers innovative research, training and consultancy services that will help in the efficient utilization and conservation of natural resources. The expertise developed by the Centre over the years of working in this field, is utilized for research, technical assistance, capacity building and sector strategy and policy reviews in issues related to land, water and bio-resources management. This Program Group provides services for a wide range of sectors inc UDI org river basin management, biodiversity and wildlife conservation, wetland UDI org, EIA, urban and rural environment UDI org, natural disaster management UDI org, conservation education, Biotechnology Applications, etc. UDI org has taken up many research programs both in Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats Region.
The Subprogram Area Culture and Heritage Environment focus on the study of culture and heritage in Environment Management and Sustainable Development. It covers the study of traditional knowledge systems, practices and technology related to various development sectors and its importance in the current scenario. It also focus on the preservation and conservation of cultural and heritage aspects of places, arts and crafts, traditions and culture and heritage in relation to environment. It emphasize the role of traditional knowledge and experience in conservation and preservation of natural resources and how it helps in Environment Management and Sustainable Development.
Safe drinking water and sanitation facilities are major factors affecting the health of the community. The present situation of these components in the majority of the rural as well as the urban population of the country focus to the need of scientific intervention at local, regional and national level. UDI org is engaged in R & D, training and consultancy programs and offers expertise to various agencies in the field of urban and rural water supply, sewerage, storm water drainage, solid waste management, Hydro-geological UDI org, water resources and watershed management, water harvesting, water and sanitation literacy campaigns, health and hygiene education, UDI org on environment pollution and environment-related diseases etc.
Being the National Key Resource Centre on Drinking Water and Sanitation of the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Government of India, UDI org is involved in capacity building and training programs to various target groups as well as organizing programs such as Water and Sanitation Literacy Campaign, providing technology support to implement Water and Sanitation programs in the Grama Panchayats of different States,etc.
This Program Area focus on research, training and consultancy services related to Urban and Rural Development UDI org.UDI org has good experience in urban planning, preparation of City Development Plans, preparation of GIS Maps for the cities and panchayats, preparation of Designs, Estimate and Master Plans for solid waste and wastewater management, storm water management, slum improvement programs, research and technology development in urban and rural development related sectors, etc. UDI org is also involved in Urban Heritage and Urban Environment Management UDI org to support the ULBs to plan these sectors. UDI org has also vast experience in implementation and management of solid waste and waste water management in urban local bodies.UDI org was managing the 300MT capacity solid waste processing plant of Thiruvananthapuram and Kochi City Corporation since 2008 to 2012.
The Energy Management Centre – Kerala (EMC), is the “State Designated Agency” to co-ordinate, regulate and enforce the provision of the EC Act 2001 in the state of Kerala with the concurrence of BEE, Ministry of Power, Govt. of India and for implementing various schemes under the Act. The Centre is devoted to the improvement of energy efficiency in the State, promotion of energy conservation and encouraging development of technologies related to energy through research, training, demonstration programs and awareness. EMC initiated URJA KIRAN, Energy Conservation Awareness Campaign in 2015.
Energy can be conserved by reducing waste and losses, improving efficiency through technological upgrades, improving operations and maintenance, changing users' behaviors through user profiling or user activities, monitoring appliances, shifting load to off-peak hours, and providing energy-saving recommendations. Observing appliance usage, establishing an energy usage profile, and revealing energy consumption patterns in circumstances where energy is used poorly, can pinpoint user habits and behaviors in energy consumption. Appliance energy profiling helps identify inefficient appliances with high energy consumption and energy load. Seasonal variations also greatly influence energy load, as more air-conditioning is used in warmer seasons and heating in colder seasons. Achieving a balance between energy load and user comfort is complex yet essential for energy preservation. On a large scale, a few factors affect energy consumption trends, including political issues, technological developments, economic growth, and environmental concerns.
Centre for Environment and Development is the Resource Agency (RA) for coordinating the activities of URJA KIRAN – Energy Conservation Awareness Campaign (ECAC) in Kerala.
The objective of URJA KIRAN is to create awareness among the general public and equip them for efficient management of all forms of energy, to promote energy efficiency and energy conservation and to develop new sources of energy as well as novel energy technologies with a view to increasing the production and facilitating the use of energy on a sustainable basis. It aims at seeking the Participating Agencies (PAs) to convene, catalyze and facilitate works in the energy conservation related activities in a participatory mode across the State. Therefore, institutions that have been involved in community participation, environment, and energy conservation work are invited to apply for the task.
UDI org has been involved in various IT and IT Enabled Services especially in fields related to Geoinformatics, Bioinformatics, Management Information System, Decision Support System etc and engaged in R&D programs linking Remote Sensing and GIS. UDI org plays an active role in developing Remote Sensing and GIS Solutions for different development sectors and local level planning in the Country. UDI org is also engaged in training and capacity building in Geoinformatics for different users and also conducting a Diploma Course in Geoinformatics. The Centre is well equipped to provide advance UDI org geospatial solutions / services in the country since 1994. All the programs are backed by an in-house pool of expertise to provide multi-faceted research, training and consulting services. UDI org is also involved in preparation of GIS base maps for urban local bodies and panchayats in the country.
Smart city initiatives have measurable positive impacts on the quality of life of its citizens and visitors. The human framework of a smart city – its economy, knowledge networks, and human support systems – is an important indicator of its success.
• Creativity: Arts and culture initiatives are common focus areas in smart city planning. Innovation is associated with intellectual curiosity and creativeness, and various projects have demonstrated that knowledge workers participate in a diverse mix of cultural and artistic activities.
• Learning: Since mobility is a key area of Smart city development, building a capable workforce through education initiatives is necessary. A city's learning capacity includes its education system, including available workforce training and support, and its cultural development and exchange.
• Humanity: Numerous Smart city programs focus on soft infrastructure development, like increasing access to voluntary organizations and designated safe zones. This focus on social and relational capital means diversity, inclusion, and ubiquitous access to public services is worked in to city planning.
• Knowledge: The development of a knowledge economy is central to Smart city projects. Smart cities seeking to be hubs of economic activity in emerging tech and service sectors stress the value of innovation in city development.
Smart cities use data and technology to create efficiencies, improve sustainability, create economic development, and enhance quality of life factors for people living and working in the city. A variety of different datasets may need to be integrated to create a smart energy infrastructure. More formally, a smart city is: "An urban area that has securely integrated technology across the information ... and Internet of Things (IoT) sectors to better manage a city’s assets." Employment of smart technologies enables the more efficient application of integrated energy technologies in the city allowing the development of more self-sustaining areas or even Positive Energy Districts that produce more energy than consume.
A smart city is powered by "smart connections" for various items such as street lighting, smart buildings, distributed energy resources (DER), data analytics, and smart transportation. Amongst these things, energy is paramount; this is why utility companies play a key role in smart cities. Electric companies, working partnership with city officials, technology companies and a number of other institutions, are among the major players that helped accelerate the growth of America's smart cities.
Smart cities employ a combination of data collection, processing, and disseminating technologies in conjunction with networking and computing technologies and data security and privacy measures encouraging the application of innovation to promote the overall quality of life for its citizens and covering dimensions that include: utilities, health, transportation, entertainment and government services
Whether to improve security, resiliency, sustainability, traffic congestion, public safety, or city services, each community may have different reasons for wanting to be smart. But all smart communities share common attributes—and they all are powered by smart connections and by our industry's smarter energy infrastructure. A smart grid is the foundational piece in building a smart community.
Smart grids are an important technology in smart cities. The improved flexibility of the smart grid permits greater penetration of highly variable renewable energy sources such as solar power and wind power.
With one-seventh of the world’s population, India’s economic stability is dependent on the sustained growth of agriculture and allied activities. The Government of India set an ambitious target of doubling farmers’ income. However, the crucial challenge for India’s agricultural development is to ensure that small and marginal farmers are able to gain adequate remuneration from farming and contribute to the country’s increasing demand for food.
Less-efficient traditional farming practices limit farmers from realizing the full potential of their landholding. In addition to the traditional challenges, climate change is a major concern in agriculture that impacts small farmers. Deviations in rainfall, changing temperatures, efficiency, and availability of inputs, all have an impact on the crop yield, quality of the produce, and overall output.
At the same time, cultivable soils are slowly becoming difficult to farm on due to high cropping intensity, inappropriate application of fertilizers, and inadequate usage of manure, among others that are causing severe nutrient deficiencies in soils. All these factors add to the risks in small and marginal-scale agriculture, thereby making it non-remunerative.
The Agriculture Development Program uses a learning-by-doing approach to build on the knowledge and capabilities of farmers to maximize their crop productivity and better manage soil health. It lays heavy emphasis on regular capacity building and on-field demonstrations to educate farmers on sustainable agricultural practices.
The Agriculture Development team at S M Sehgal Foundation conducts crop demonstrations and carries out training sessions to help farmers understand the importance of soil testing, appropriate seed rates, quality seeds, seed-sowing methods, correct quality and quantities of plant protection chemicals, weed management, pest management, use of compost, and other advanced techniques. The use of bio-fertilizers, micronutrients, and macronutrients is promoted to improve soil microbial activity. This increases organic matter in the soil, leading to a significant increase in agricultural productivity, thereby boosting farmers’ income.
The crop demonstrations are carried out on the farmers’ own fields, with the control and experimental fields side-by-side. This put into action the theory of seeing-is-believing, where farmers observe the results themselves, while learning firsthand the practical application of the new and sustainable techniques. The results also motivate farmers to adopt and scale these improved farming practices, thereby increasing crop productivity.
Use of appropriate machines and modern technology in agriculture has the potential to address and overcome challenges such as poverty, resource scarcity, climate change, hunger, and malnutrition. Introducing farm mechanization in agriculture saves time and labor costs, decreases input cost, reduces the risk of weather and labor uncertainties, increases the quality and quantity of produce, and improves return over investment and farm income over time.
The Agriculture Development Program increases the penetration of mechanization among small and marginal farmers by providing farm machines to enterprising farmers at subsidized rates. Farmers contribute to the cost of the machinery, which instills in them a sense of ownership as well as entrepreneurship. The program trains farmers to operate and maintain the machines and subsequently earn an extra livelihood by renting these machines to other farmers.
While small-holders and marginal farmers have the fundamental know-how of farming, they have limited awareness of allied agri-entrepreneurship activities to supplement their income. There is a need to build upon the capacities of farmers to undertake calculated risks for increased profits and financial sustainability.
The Agriculture Development Program encourages entrepreneurship among small-holder farmers, and landless women in particular, by supplementing the existing sources of income, mitigating the risk of farmers, and in some cases protecting biodiversity, and promoting food security. The Agriculture Development team educates farmers about the nuances of various enterprises and business models, and facilitates backward and forward linkages. Some of the entrepreneurship activities promoted include high-value crop cultivation, horticulture development, goatery management, and farm machinery, among others.
Availability of water is critical for the sustenance of agriculture and for ensuring food security. India is a water-stressed country, and agriculture consumes more than 80 percent of the total available water. Therefore, it is imperative to bring water use efficiency in the agriculture sector.
The Agriculture Development Program improves irrigation water-use efficiency by promoting the use of micro irrigation, mulching, laser leveling, direct seeded rice, and use of water absorbents to maintain soil moisture. The use of these water-saving irrigation practices reduces the consumption of water by 25–85 percent, while also improving farm productivity and reducing the cost of labor and the incidences of weeds and diseases in crops. It further educates farmers that efficient use of water is the key to sustainable agriculture.
The Agriculture Development Program imparts information about modern and sustainable agricultural practices to strengthen and adapt the capacities of farmers to changing circumstances. The Agriculture Development team promotes a wide range of capacity-building methods including classroom training sessions that introduce modern techniques and best practices, on-farm training with practical application of these techniques and practices, field days and exposure visits to introduce farmers to new innovations and approaches, and workshops for peer-to-peer interaction and learnings. Leveraging digital technologies and ICT aids small and marginal farmers with access information and services, which results in improved agricultural productivity, better adaptation to climate change, resource efficiency, and increased market opportunities. The Agriculture Development team also invites experts from Krishi Vigyan Kendra’s, state universities, and district-level departments to provide knowledge about the benefits of government schemes on agriculture and allied activities to small and marginal farmers.
Collectivization of producers, especially small and marginal farmers, into farmer producer organizations has emerged as one of the most effective pathways to address the many challenges of agriculture, but most importantly, improved access to investments, technology, inputs, and markets.
The Agriculture Development Program strengthens institutional capacities of farmer-producer organizations along with training on better agronomic practices and technologies to improve the quantity and quality of their produce. The Agriculture Development team builds capacities of the farmer producer organizations to establish backward and forward market linkages, facilitates access to credit and strengthens the supply chain management. The overarching aim is to strengthen the operational and financial sustainability of these farmer producer organizations.
As a populous nation, India faces an enormous challenge in coping with the consequences of climate change. The majority of the country’s population resides in villages and depends largely on climate-sensitive sectors like agriculture, fisheries, and forestry for their livelihood. This vulnerability puts Indian farmers in great need of adaptation strategies in the face of climate variability and change.
The Agriculture Development Program supports climate-smart agriculture focusing on adapting and building resilience to climate change, using an approach to transform agriculture systems to effectively respond to the challenges posed by climate change and to ensure food security. The Agriculture Development team works with farmers to promote water use efficiency in agriculture, soil health, and nutrient management, use of renewable energy and appropriate machines, protected cultivation, and the adoption of salt-tolerant varieties of cereal and vegetable crops.
The Agriculture Development Program promotes animal health to improve milk productivity. Profitability of dairy farming depends on three main factors: breed of the animal, management, and feeding practices. Inadequate feeding causes nutrition imbalances in milch animals, so they do not attain the desired body weight, they remain unhealthy, and produce less milk. The Agriculture Development Program encourages farmers to regularly deworm dairy animals and include high-quality mineral additives to their diet, including green fodder. The method is sustainable as dietary supplements are locally available, and training is provided on how to give them to the animals.
The Agriculture Development Program advocates for the adoption of renewable energy in farming practices without compromising on productivity. Usage of renewable energy reduces input costs particularly as an alternative for petroleum products. This has a positive impact on the environment as it reduces the carbon footprint of agriculture. These measures include solar water pumps and solar sprays, among others.
India's energy demand is expected to increase more than that of any other country in the coming decades due to its sheer size and enormous potential for growth and development. Therefore, it is imperative that most of this new energy demand is met by low-carbon, renewable sources. India's announcement India that it intends to achieve net zero carbon emissions by 2070 and to meet 50% of its electricity needs from renewable sources by 2030 marks a historic point in the global effort to combat climate change.
The Indian renewable energy sector is the fourth most attractive renewable energy market in the world. India was ranked fourth in wind power, fifth in solar power and fourth in renewable power installed capacity, as of 2020. Installed renewable power generation capacity has gained pace over the past few years, posting a CAGR of 15.92% between FY16-22. India is the market with the fastest growth in renewable electricity, and by 2026, new capacity additions are expected to double.
With the increased support of the Government and improved economics, the sector has become attractive from an investors perspective. As India looks to meet its energy demand on its own, which is expected to reach 15,820 TWh by 2040, renewable energy is set to play an important role.
Cost-benefit analysis has been done into smart cities and the individual technologies. These can help to assess whether it is economically and ecologically beneficial to implement some technologies at all, and also compare the cost-effectiveness of each technology among each other.
Large IT, telecommunication and energy management companies such as Apple, Baidu, Alibaba, Tencent, Huawei, Google, Microsoft, Cisco, IBM, and Schneider Electric launched market initiatives for intelligent cities.
• Baidu is working on Apollo, a self-driving technology
• Alibaba has created the City Brain
• Tencent is working on medical technology, such as WeChat Intelligent Healthcare, Tencent Doctorwork, and AI Medical Innovation System (AIMIS)
• Huawei has its Safe City Compact Solution which focuses on improving safety in cities
• Google's subsidiary Sidewalk Labs is focusing on smart cities
• Microsoft has CityNext
• Cisco, launched the global "Intelligent Urbanization" initiative to help cities using the network as the fourth utility for integrated city management, better quality of life for citizens, and economic development.
• IBM announced its Smarter Cities Challenge to stimulate economic growth and quality of life in cities and metropolitan areas with the activation of new approaches of thinking and acting in the urban ecosystem.
• Schneider Electric is working on EcoStruxure
• Sensor developers and startup companies[clarification needed] are also continually developing new smart city applications.
Prior to India's Independence, from the period of 1900 to 1947, per capita income in India had either declined or stagnated. Post-Independence, Jawaharal Nehru demonstrated his willingness to compromise socialism for the perceived benefit of the country to provide financial incentives for the expansion of private enterprise. However, after the crisis of 1957, India turned towards import substitution industrialization and introduced foreign exchange. The Nehru-Mahalanobis approach, often referred to as the Second Five Year Plan, emphasized the development of basic and heavy industries as a means of accelerating economic growth. These included steel, copper, petrochemicals, paper, coal, and oil. Mahalanobis strived for India to reach autonomy, ridding any outstanding debts. Critics disagreed with this approach, stating that World Bank's claim of Indian export prospects being low were falsified and due to India's inward-looking strategy, the growth opportunity of the world economy was missed. Nonetheless, over 1950–1965, India's acceleration of per capita income growth had increased an average of 1.7%, a value not exceeded since.
The discourse on the efficacy of the Nehru-Mahalanobis Strategy is commonly contested by economists. A criticism of the approach emphasizes the lack of resource allocation in the agriculture sector. It is argued that the misbalanced weightage towards the machine-making sector contributed to the increase in food-grain prices and thus, perpetuated poverty and malnutrition. Defenders of the strategy claim that it sought to increase agricultural output by increasing the output-capital ratio. This agreeably would have been accomplished through land-reforms, something the strategy did not address, not indicating a problem with the strategy itself.
India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for 18.6% of the GDP in 2005, employed 60% of the total workforce and despite a steady decline of its share in the GDP, is still the largest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic development of India. Yields per unit area of all crops have grown since 1950, due to the special emphasis placed on agriculture in the five-year plans and steady improvements in irrigation, technology, application of modern agricultural practices and provision of agricultural credit and subsidies since the green revolution
India is the largest producer in the world of milk, cashew nuts, coconuts, tea, ginger, turmeric and black pepper. It also has the world's largest cattle population (193 million). It is the second largest producer of wheat, rice, sugar, groundnut and inland fish. It is the third largest producer of tobacco. India accounts for 10% of the world fruit production with first rank in the production of banana and sapota, also known as chiku.
The required level of investment for the development of marketing, storage and cold storage infrastructure is estimated to be huge. The government has implemented various schemes to raise investment in marketing infrastructure. Amongst these schemes are Construction of Rural Go downs, Market Research and Information Network, and Development / Strengthening of Agricultural Marketing Infrastructure, Grading and Standardisation.
Main problems in the agricultural sector, as listed by the World Bank, are:
• India's large agricultural subsidies are hampering productivity-enhancing investment.
• Overregulation of agriculture has increased costs, price risks and uncertainty.
• Government interventions in labour, land, and credit markets.
• Inadequate infrastructure and services.
Since the economic liberalisation of 1991, India's GDP has been growing at a higher rate. The following table has been collected from public data archives with data from the World Bank:
GDP growth rate is unequal within India. For the year 2015–16, GDP growth rates of Andhra Pradesh (10.99%), Bihar (10.27%) and Madhya Pradesh (10.16%) were higher than Maharashtra (8%), Odisha (6.16%) and Punjab (5.96%).
India is fifteenth in services output. Service industry employ English-speaking Indian workers on the supply side and on the demand side, has increased demand from foreign consumers interested in India's service exports or those looking to outsource their operations. India's IT industry, despite contributing significantly to its balance of payments, accounts for only about 1% of the total GDP or 1/50th of the total services.
Services sector is the largest sector of India. Gross Value Added (GVA) at current prices for Services sector is estimated at 92.26 lakh crore INR in 2018-19. Services sector accounts for 54.40% of total India's GVA of 169.61 lakh crore Indian rupees.
With GVA of Rs. 50.43 lakh crore, Industry sector contributes 29.73%. While Agriculture and allied sector shares 15.87%.
It is worth mentioning that agriculture sector has maximum share by working force at near 53% while services and secondary sectors shares are near 29% and 18% respectively.
RASHTRIYA VIKAS YOJNA believes in the spirit of partnership and has joined hands with community organization, civic bodies, corporate, educational and development institutions, as well as government to strengthen its cause and ameliorate the situation of underprivileged children and youths in India.
The management of RASHTRIYA VIKAS YOJNA is deeply committed to providing the basic requirements of life to every human being, and facilitate the development of overall potential physically, mentally, and spiritually. The holistic development of every person would contribute to the overall health of society and promote social wellbeing.
It is an issue based, strategic educational support organization working in Western India with people’s collectives, NGOs, elected representatives in local governance and the government. Collaborative research, public education, advocacy, direct field level mobilisation and implementation with multiple stakeholders are the key instruments of our work. The interventions span from the grassroot level to policy level environment in ensuring basic rights of citizens. In this, inspiration is drawn from the struggles of the vulnerable and strength from our partners. Presently, all the activities are organised around the following programmecentres.
Presently, all the activities are organised around the following programmecentres:
1. Social Inclusion and Empowerment
2. Civic Leadership Governance and Social Accountability
3. Social Determinants of Disaster Risk Reduction
RASHTRIYA VIKAS YOJNA is a collaborative platform which aims to synergise Smart city development efforts across ASEAN by facilitating cooperation on smart city development, catalysing bankable projects with the private sector, and securing funding and support from ASEAN's external partners.
The European Union (EU) has devoted constant efforts to devising a strategy for achieving 'smart' urban growth for its metropolitan city-regions. The EU has developed a range of programmes under "Europe's Digital Agenda". In 2010, it highlighted its focus on strengthening innovation and investment in ICT services for the purpose of improving public services and quality of life. Arup estimates that the global market for smart urban services will be $400 billion per annum by 2020.
The Smart Cities Mission is a retrofitting and urban renewal program being spearheaded by the RASHTRIYA VIKAS YOJNA. RASHTRIYA VIKAS YOJNA has the ambitious vision of developing 100 cities by modernizing existing mid-sized cities.